Spinning grain into liquid gold: Whiskey is really just beer with a whole lot of life experience—the worldly-wise politician to beer's young idealist. The category includes Scotch and Bourbon, as well as Irish and Canadian whiskeys. All start with a grain mash, sometimes formed of a single grain (barley, wheat, rye and corn are common) and sometimes a mix of grains; usually "malted" (heated to start breaking starch into sugars). Scotch whiskeys are famous for their complex smoky taste, which comes from heating the mash over peat fires; most other whiskeys protect the mash from smoke for a sweeter, rounder flavor. After distilling, the liquor is clear, only taking on that range of gorgeous warm caramel colors when they're aged—a minimum of 3 years—in wood barrels. Darker? It's either been aged longer, or aged in barrels previously used for a wine.